Structure of the Question Paper of BIOLOGY
According to Syllabus of MDCAT 2019
|Marks per correct question||01|
|Marks per wrong question||00|
Table of Contents
1. The Cell
2. Biological Molecules
3. Chromosomes and DNA
4. Cell Division
5. Variety of Life
7. Gas Exchange
8. Transport in plants
9. Transport in humans
12. Muscles and Movement
Topics of Biology included in ERA OTS
According to Syllabus of MDCAT 2019
- ERA UNIT: 01 UHS Topic 1 THE CELL
· Light and Electron Microscope (Magnification and Resolution)
· Structure of Typical Animal and Plant Cell
· Fluid Mosaic Model of Cell Membrane
· Transport of Material across the Cell Membrane: Active transport, Passive transport, Endocytosis and Exocytosis
· Eukaryotic Cell Structures: Endoplasmic reticulum (RER & SER), Ribosomes, Golgi apparatus, Lysosomes, Vacuoles, Centrioles & Microtubules, Mitochondria, Chloroplast and Nucleus (nuclear membrane, nucleolus and chromosomes)
· Prokaryotic Cell & Eukaryotic cell
- ERA UNIT: 02 UHS Topic 2 BIOMOLECULES
· Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides, Disaccharides and Polysaccharides (Starch, Glycogen & Cellulose)
· Lipids: Triglycerides, Phospholipids and their functions.
· Proteins: Amino Acids & Peptide bond formation, Structures of Proteins (primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures) and Globular & Fibrous Proteins
· Nucleic acids: DNA, RNA and Types of RNA
· Water: Heat of vaporization, Specific Heat Capacity and Solvent Action
· Enzyme: Definition, Characteristics of, Mechanism of Enzyme Action Enzymes (Lock & key model and Induced fit model), Factors affecting the rate of Enzyme Action, Inhibitors
- ERA UNIT: 03 UHS Topic 3+4+5 CHROMOSOMES & DNA| CELL CYCLE | VARIETY OF LIFE
· Chromosome: Nucleosome, DNA, Histone Proteins, Chromatids, Centromere and Telomeres
· Gene as a Basic Unit of Genetic Information
· DNA Replication: Hypothesis of DNA Replication, Meselson & Stahl’s experiment and Replication
· Genetic Code
· Kingdoms: Protoctista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia(INTRODUCTION ONLY)
· Viruses: Structure of Viruses
· AIDS: Causative Agent, Modes of Transmission and Prevention & Control
- ERA UNIT: 04 UHS Topic 6 BIOENERGETICS
· Photosynthetic Pigments (Chlorophylls and Carotenoids)
· Absorption and Action Spectra
· Light-Dependent Reactions (cyclic and non-cyclic phosphorylation) and Light-Independent Reactions (Calvin cycle).
· Cellular Respiration: Glycolysis, Link reaction / Pyruvic Oxidation, Kreb’s Cycle (with reference to production of NADH, FADH and ATP) and ETC
· Anaerobic Respiration and its Types (Alcoholic and Lactic Acid Fermentation).
- ERA UNIT: 05 UHS topic 7+8+9 Gas exchange | Transport in Plants/Animals
· Anatomy of Human Respiratory System.
· Transport of Respiratory Gases: O2 & CO2 and Role of Haemoglobin as Respiratory Pigment.
· Respiratory Disorders: Tuberculosis, Emphysema and Lung Cancer
· Transport of Water and Minerals: Apoplast & Symplast Pathway and Cohesion, Transpiration Pull / Tension & Adhesion
· Transpiration, Factors affecting it and opening and closing of Stomata.
· Translocation according to Pressure Flow Theory
· Heart: Structure of heart, Cardiac Cycle, Control of Heart Beat, ECG and Blood Pressure
· Blood Vessels: Arteries, Veins and Capillaries
· Blood: Plasma and Blood Cells (RBCs, WBCs and platelets).
· Lymphatic System
- ERA UNIT: 06 UHS Topic 10+11+12 IMMUNITY| HOMEOSTASIS| MUSCLES AND MOVEMENT
· Immune System and its Components
· Types of Immunity
· Thermoregulation in Mammals
· Human Urinary System
· Structure and Function of Skeletal Muscle
· Mechanism of Skeletal Muscle Contraction; Sarcomere, Ultrastructure of Myofilaments, Sliding Filament, Control of Actin-Myosin Interaction and Use of Energy for Muscle Contraction.
- ERA UNIT: 07 UHS Topic 13+14 COMMUNICATION | REPRODUCTION
· Nervous Coordination in Mammals
· Neurons: Sensory, Intermediate / relay and motor neurons
· Reflex arc / Reflex action
· Nerve impulse
· Hormones: Definition & Types of Hormones, Hormones of Islets of Langerhans (Insulin & Glucagon) and Role of ADH in Osmoregulation.
· Plants Hormones: Auxins, Gibberellins and Abscisic Acid
· Gametogenesis: Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis
· Hormonal control of Human Menstrual Cycle (FSH, LH, estrogen and progesterone)
ERA UNIT: 08 UHS TOPIC 15 GENETICS
· Basics of Genetics: Gene, Locus, Allele, Gene Pool, Phenotype, Genotype, Homozygous, Heterozygous, Dominant Allele, Recessive Allele, Complete Dominance, Codominance, Linkage, F1 & F2 Generations, Mutation and Multiple Allele.
· Gene Linkage: Crossing over and Recombination Frequency / Cross Over Value
· Continuous and Discontinuous Variations
· Punnet square, Test cross and Monohybrid & Dihybrid Crosses
· Gene Linkage and Sex Linkage in Human (Haemophilia and Colour Blindness)
- ERA UNIT: 09 UHS TOPIC 16+17 EVOLUTION | BIOTECHNOLOGY
· Recombinant DNA Technology / Genetic Engineering: Principles of Recombinant DNA Technology and its Application, PCR & Gel Electrophoresis and DNA Analysis / Finger Printing
· Gene Therapy
· Transgenic Organisms (Bacteria, Plants and Animals)
· Theory of natural selection
· Hardy-Weinberg theorem and factors affecting gene / allele frequency